While a good hoof trimming program is an essential component of lameness prevention, poor trimming technique can create lameness. The Lameness Committee of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) has produced a fact sheet aimed at helping veterinarians and producers to objectively assess a herd hoof trimming program.
Prevention of DD focuses on biosecurity, maintaining good barn hygiene and routine foot bathing. Treatment of DD infections is typically only done by hoof trimmers at their infrequent visits—usually by applying antibiotic and bandaging for a few days. But, because new infections can rapidly advance, early detection and treatment is necessary to minimize new outbreaks of active lesions.
Over the past few years, researchers at the University of Calgary’s Faculty of Veterinary Medicine have been working to develop a practical way to routinely identify and treat painful DD lesions in the milking parlour.
Identifying lame cows is the first step in dealing with the dairy industry’s most important animal welfare issue. How does lameness affect lying behaviour? Could continuously-recorded lying time be used to help identify lame cows?
The adoption of a standardized, computer-based system for recording hoof trimming data (Hoof Supervisor® – HS) has made it possible to collect and analyse that data for application in herd benchmarking and genetic improvement. To that end, a Canadian research project is in progress to develop a process for data interchange between HS-equipped trimmers and the national Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) database and on to the Canadian Dairy Network, the national dairy genetics organization. The ability of trimmers to download DHI data in advance of a herd visit will also aid in the selection of cows to trim.
Although it is commonly believed that the primary cause of claw horn lesions in dairy cattle is rumen acidosis, resulting from the feeding of highly fermentable diets, there is no conclusive scientific evidence to support this idea. Recent research supports alternative explanations.
A comprehensive strategy for the control of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy herds was presented at the 2016 UK Cattle Lameness Conference. The 5-point plan, which applies to young stock as well as dry and lactating cows, includes:
1. External biosecurity to keep disease out of farm
2. Internal biosecurity to minimise infection pressure on cows
3. Early identification, recording and treatment of clinical cases, in
association with hoof care
4. Frequent foot disinfection to reduce new cases
5. Defining and monitoring hoof health targets
Results of a study of 36 herds with automated milking systems in Québec, Ontario, Alberta and Michigan identified some of the main risk factors for lameness in those herds. The authors of the study conclude that, for the prevention of lameness, more attention needs to be be paid to providing free stalls of appropriate size for the cows in the herd.
To examine the influence of their hoof trimming strategies on hoof health, herds participating in phase 1 of the Alberta Dairy Hoof Health Project were classified according to whether they did whole-herd or partial-herd trims. On farms with partial-herd trims, prevalences of the most common lesions were higher than on farms with whole-herd trims.
Researchers at the University of Nottingham, UK have shown that untreated sole hemorrhage, sole ulcers and white line lesions can lead to excess bone development at the caudal end of the pedal bone, resulting in chronic lameness.
To control digital dermatitis (DD), M2-stage lesions need to be treated as soon as possible after they are detected. Waiting more than a few days for the next time the trimmer is scheduled to visit will never get DD under control. Several studies have examined the accuracy of DD detection in the milking parlour compared with lifting feet in a trim chute. Results suggest that inspection of heels in the parlour using a simple mirror and headlamp is a viable option for routinely monitoring DD lesions.